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Rose planting and growing

Roses. - No home property is complete without roses. There are so many kinds and classes that varieties may be found for almost any purpose, from climbing or pillar subjects to highly fragrant teas, great hybrid perpetuals, free-blooming bedders, and good foliage subjects for the shrubbery. There is no flower in the growing of which one so quickly develops the temper and taste of the connoisseur.

Roses are essentially flower-garden subjects rather than lawn subjects, since flowers are their chief beauty. Yet the foliage of many of the highly developed roses is good and attractive when the plants are well grown.

To secure the best results with roses, they should be placed in a bed by themselves, where they can be tilled and pruned and well taken care of, as other flower-garden plants are. The ordinary garden roses should rarely be grown in mixed borders of shrubbery. It is usually most satisfactory also to make beds of one variety rather than to mix them with several varieties.

If it is desired to have roses in mixed shrubbery borders, then the single and informal types should be chosen. The best of all these is Rosa rugosa. This has not only attractive flowers through the greater part of the season, but it also has very interesting foliage and a striking habit. The great profusion of bristles and spines gives it an individual and strong character. Even without the flowers, it is valuable to add character and cast to a foliage mass. The foliage is not attacked by insects or fungi, but remains green and glossy throughout the year. The fruit is also very large and showy, and persists on bushes well through the winter. Some of the wild roses are also very excellent for mixing into foliage masses, but, as a rule, their foliage characteristics are rather weak, and they are liable to be attacked by thrips.

There are so many classes of roses that the intending planter is likely to be confused unless he knows what they are. Different classes require different treatment. Some of them, as the teas and hybrid perpetuals (the latter also known as remontants), bloom from new canes; while the rugosa, the Austrian, Harrison's yellow, sweet briers, and some others are bushes and do not renew themselves each year from the crown or bases of the canes.

The outdoor roses may be divided into two great groups so far as their blooming habit is involved:
  1. The continuous or intermittent bloomers, as the hybrid perpetuals (blooming chiefly in June), bourbons, tea, rugosa, the teas and hybrid teas being the most continuous in bloom;
  2. those that bloom once only, in summer, as Austrian, Ayrshire, sweet briers, prairie, Cherokee, Banksian, provence, most moss roses, damask, multiflora, polyantha, and memorial (Wichuraiana). "Perpetual" or recurrent-blooming races have been developed in the Ayrshire, moss, polyantha, and others.
While roses delight in a sunny exposure, nevertheless our dry atmosphere and hot summers are sometimes trying on the flowers, as are severe wintry winds on the plants. While, therefore, it is never advisable to plant roses near large trees, or where they will be overshadowed by buildings or surrounding shrubbery, some shade during the heat of the day will be a benefit. The best position is an eastern or northern slope, and where fences or other objects will break the force of strong winds, in those sections where such prevail.

Roses should be carefully taken up every four or five years, tops and roots cut in, and then reset, either in a new place or in the old, after enriching the soil with a fresh supply of manure, and deeply spading it over. In Holland, roses are allowed to stand about eight years. They are then taken out and their places filled with young plants.