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Garden Planting Schedule for South


JANUARY

Annuals. - All kinds of hardy annuals and perennials, such as alyssum, snapdragon, foxglove, hollyhock, phlox, poppy, pansy, lobelia, candytuft, sweet pea, Chinese pink, sweet william, larkspur, foliage cinerarias, centaurea, mignonette, and many others of the same class may be sown. Most of them should be sown thinly and where they are intended to flower, as they transplant poorly in this latitude.

Cannas, caladiums, perennial phloxes, chrysanthemums, and verbenas may be taken up, divided, and replanted.

Roses may be planted in quantities. Let the ground intended for them have a thorough dressing of manure. Occasionally a plant may be taken up and divided. The hybrid varieties may now be layered. This is done as follows: Select a shoot and bend it flat upon the ground; hold it in both hands, having a distance of about 6 in. between them; keep the left hand firm, and with the right give the shoot a sharp twist; now cover it with 4 in. of earth and tie the free end to an upright stake.

Asparagus beds should be liberally manured. New beds should now be made. Set the plants 6 in. deep. Sow seed now.

Beets and all hardy vegetables (carrots, parsnips, turnips, rutabagas, kohlrabi, spinach, lettuce, herbs, etc.) may now be sown, planted, or transplanted.

Cabbage plants should be set out on heavily manured ground. Sow seed of Early Summer for a later supply.

Fruits. - If possible, all planting and transplanting of fruit-trees and grape-vines should be finished this month. Pruning should be completed as soon as possible, and preparation made to protect the blossoms of tender fruits next month. Set out strawberry-plants, and during dry weather run the cultivator through all old beds that are at all weedy. It is a good plan, where practicable, to mulch the beds. Here, pine-straw can be had plentifully for the purpose. Examine peach trees for borers. Raspberries and blackberries should be pruned now if the work is not already done. Cuttings of Le Conte pears, Marianna plums, grape-vines, and pomegranates should be put in at once if they have heretofore been forgotten. Root-grafting should be progressing rapidly; this is the best time for this important work.

Onion seeds. - Sow at once, and plant sets as soon as possible.

Peas. - Sow early and late varieties. The late varieties succeed best if sown at this season.

Seasonable work. - This is a good month to obtain canes for staking peas, tomatoes, and beans, hauling manure, making repairs, and examining tools, etc. As the fall crop is harvested, the land should be prepared for another crop. Tile-draining is now is order. Prepare frames to cover with canvas for use next month.

Sweet-potatoes. - A few may be bedded in a frame from which to obtain "draws" for setting out about March 15.

Tomatoes, egg-plants, and peppers. - Sow now on a slight hotbed. When the plants come up, all the air possible should be given during the day. They can be raised without heat, but at this season this plan would better be attempted only by the skillful.

FEBRUARY

Asters, cannas, dahlias, heliotropes, lobelias, petunias, pyrethrums, ricinus, salvias, and verbenas are best sown in a coldframe, where they can have some protection from heavy rain.

Cannas should be transplanted now.

Chrysanthemums must be planted in well-manured ground in a position where water can be readily supplied to them.

Dahlias may be taken up and divided as soon as they begin growth.

Gladiolus and tuberose bulbs should be planted now. It is a good plan to extend the planting through March and April.

Pansies. - Plant them out in the beds where they are to flower.

Routine work. - Sodding should now proceed rapidly. If sods cannot be obtained, the ground may be planted with Bermuda grass. Plant small pieces of the grass a foot apart and water them if the weather is dry, and they will grow rapidly. Hedges should be cleared up and put in good shape. All planting of trees and shrubs should be finished this month. All pruning of trees must be done early in the month. Young roses cannot be set too early in February. They thrive best when planted in fall. Roll the drives and repair them when necessary. The lawn will now require constant care, and the mower should be used before the grass becomes 1-1/2 in. high.

Bush-beans may be planted February 14. On alluvial land it is best to plant them on slight rises as a protection against the rains which sometimes occur toward the end of the month. If frost should threaten just as the beans begin to peep out, cover them an inch deep with the plow or hand cultivator. Sow Early Mohawk first, and at the end of the month sow Early Valentine; a week later sow the wax varieties.

Cabbage, - Sow early varieties, such as Early Summer, Early Drumhead, and Early Flat Dutch. Etampes, Extra Early Express, and Winnigstadt sown for small heads in the order named have done very well in southern Louisiana. The earlier sown plants should be transplanted as often as convenient. Should worms cause trouble, dust the plants with a mixture of one part of pyrethrum powder to six of fine dust.

Carrots, celery, beets, endive, kohlrabi, onion sets, parsley, parsnips, radishes and purple-top turnips must now be sown.

Corn. - Plant Extra Early Adams, Yellow Canada, Stowell Evergreen, and White Flint toward the middle of the month. Sow again a week later, and again after another week. If the first two sowings fail, the last one will give the early crop.

Cucumbers. - Sow and protect with small boxes during cold days and nights, or sow in pots or on sods. Protect the seedlings with sashes or canvas, and plant them out late.

Lettuce. - Sow seeds and transplant the plants on hand. This crop requires a soil well supplied with plant-food.

Melons. - Plant seeds in the same manner as advised for cucumbers.

Okra. - Sow seeds on sods and set out the plants next month.

Peas. - Sow seeds of a number of varieties.

Peppers and egg-plants, if not sown last month, should be sown now. Sow them under glazed sashes and keep close. When the plants appear, give some air, and increase it according to the weather. If a large number of plants is required, the sowing may be delayed until next month. Should flea-beetles trouble you, use plenty of bordeaux on egg-plants.

Potatoes, Irish. - The main crop should be planted as early as possible. Standard varieties are Early Rose, Peerless, and Burbank.

Strawberries. - Run the cultivator through them at least once every three weeks; if they are to be mulched, collect the necessary material. Strawberries planted in February seldom yield much of a crop.

Sweet-potatoes, can now be bedded and protected with canvas, or a row or two of whole tubers may be planted for "draws" and vines.

Tomatoes in frames should be given all the air and light possible and plenty of room if protected with canvas, do not allow the plants to crowd.

MARCH

Beans. - Sow all varieties for a fall crop. As soon as the plants appear, the cultivator must be run through the crop, and kept going as often as necessary.

Corn. - Continue to plant; and we recommend harrowing the patch as soon as the young corn appears. It is generally planted in hills 3 or 4 ft. apart, but better results will be obtained-by planting in drills and leaving one stalk every 12 in.

Cucumbers. - Sow in hills 4 ft. apart, using a liberal quantity of seed to each hill. When the plants come up, thin them to about six in the hill. When the plants begin to get rough leaves, pull out one or two more from each hill. Striped cucumber-beetles are sometimes very numerous, and in order to get a stand of plants it is necessary to go through the patch early every morning and sprinkle all the hills with air-slaked lime.

Egg-plants. - Toward the end of the month the plants growing in frames may be transplanted to their fruiting quarters. Seed may be sown outside after March 15; sooner if a warm and sheltered spot is selected.

Lettuce. - Sow in drills, and when the plants are large enough, thin to a foot apart. If transplanted at this season, they often go to seed.

Okra. - A sowing may be made now, but the main planting would best be deferred until after March 15. Sow in drills 3 ft. apart and thin the plants to 18 in. apart in the drills.

Peas. - Early varieties may be sown; it is now too late to sow tall-growing kinds.

Peppers. - Treat as advised for egg-plants.

Potatoes, Irish. - It is not too late to plant them, but the sooner they are planted the better. The crop planted in February should be harrowed as soon as the shoots begin to come up, and when the rows can be fairly seen, the cultivator must be set to work to keep down weeds and grass.

Squashes. - Plant seed in hills 6 ft. apart. The directions for planting melons may be followed. The same remarks apply to pumpkins and other vegetables of this kind.

Sweet-potatoes. - If slips or vines are at hand, they may be planted late in the month for the earliest tubers. The whole potatoes may be planted on a ridge to yield vines for later planting.

Strawberries. - The mulching of beds or rows should be no longer delayed, if clean and plentiful fruit is wanted.

Tomatoes. - About March 15 the frame plants may go to their fruiting quarters. It is necessary to use some judgment in this matter, as they may be killed or injured by an April frost. Seed may be sown in the open ground for plants for late fruiting. Set the plants 4 ft. apart each way.

APRIL
Alternantheras should go out now.

Annuals of all kinds may still be sown where they are to flower, as they transplant with difficulty at this season.

Coleuses. - Plant out in the beds now. Cuttings root readily, simply requiring to be stuck in.

Beans of all kinds can be planted, limas especially.

Beets. - Make another sowing.

Cabbage plants obtained from spring sowings should be set out as soon as fit. The ground requires to be very rich to carry this crop.

Cucumbers. - These can be sown anywhere now.

Corn. - Make a sowing to yield roasting ears to come in after that sown last month.

Okra. - Sow in drills 3 or 4 ft. apart.

Peas. - Make a sowing of early varieties for the last time.

Squash (bush) and pumpkin may now be planted.

Tomatoes should be got out to their fruiting quarters as early in the month as possible. Let them be set at least 4 ft. apart each way.

MAY
Beans. - Plant a few more bush and pole beans.

Celery may now be started. The bed or box needs plenty of water, and should be shaded from sun.

Lettuce requires careful handling to encourage it to germinate. It is best sown in a box and kept shaded and moist.

Melons, cucumbers, squashes, and pumpkins may be sown.

Radishes. - Sow the yellow and white summer varieties.

Remarks. - It is a constant struggle with weeds throughout this month, and the cultivator and plow are ever going. As the land becomes vacant, sow corn or plant sweet-potatoes--draws or vines. Sow some late Italian cauliflower. Let the orchard have constant and thorough cultivation, and remove all unnecessary growth from the trees as soon as they appear. Be always on the lookout for borers. Keep the strawberries as free of grass and coco, or knob-grass, as possible.

JUNE
Beans. - All kinds may now be sown.

Cauliflower. - Sow the Italian kinds.

Corn. - Make a planting at the beginning of the month and again at the end.

Cucumbers. - Plant a few more hills. The plants at this season must be given plenty of water.

Endive. - Sow, and attend to the tying up of the plants that are of sufficient size.

Melons. - Sow for a succession a few more water and muskmelons.

Okra may still be sown.

Radishes. - Sow the summer varieties now.

Squashes and pumpkins may yet be sown.

Sweet-potato vines may now be set out in quantities.

Tomatoes. - About the middle of the month sow for the fall crop.

JULY
Beans. - Bush and pole beans may be planted towards the end of the month.

Cabbage and cauliflower may now be sown, but the main sowing should be deferred until next month.

Carrots. - A sowing should be made.

Celery. - Sow and transplant what plants there may be on hand.

Cucumbers. - These may be sown now for pickling.

Endive. - Transplant and sow.

Grapes should be kept well tied to trellis, and unnecessary growth removed, so that the wood may have the chance of becoming thoroughly ripened. If the cultivator and plow are not used judiciously, a second growth will be started, which is not desirable.

Lettuce. - The seed requires to be sprouted before being sown, and if the sowing is done on a dry day the drills should be watered.

Radishes. - Sow the summer kinds.

Strawberries. - Keep the beds clean of weeds and grass.

Tomatoes. - Make a sowing early in the month, or, what is much better, take cuttings from plants still in bearing.

Turnips. - Sow a few after a shower towards the end of the month.

Remarks. - Much cannot be done this month, as the weather is hot and dry, but the opportunity should not be lost for killing weeds and preparing for the planting season, which is now rapidly drawing near.

AUGUST
Artichokes. - Seed of the Green Globe may be sown now and large plants obtained by spring. The seed-bed requires to be shaded.

Bush beans, beets, pole beans, carrots, celery, endive, kohlrabi, lettuce, mustard, Black Spanish and Rose China radishes, parsley, turnips, rutabagas, and salad plants of all kinds may now be sown. The seed should be sown on small ridges, adaptable to the kind of plants, for level culture is not successful in the vegetable garden in this section.

Broccoli should be more grown, for it is hardier than the cauliflower. Many cannot tell the difference between the two. Sow now.

Cabbages must be sown by the middle of the month. Make the ground very rich and shade the seed-bed, keeping it moist during the whole of the time.

Cauliflower should also be sown.

Potatoes, Irish, should be planted by the middle of the month, if possible. Plant only those that have sprouted, and instead of planting on top of the ridge set in the furrow and cover 2 in. deep; as the potatoes grow, work more soil down to them.

Salsify. - Sow now or early next month.

Shallots. - Plant them now.

Squash. - Bush kinds may be planted now at any time.

Sweet-potatoes. - Vines may still be set out, with prospects of harvesting a fair crop.

Tomatoes. - If short of plants, cut off good-sized limbs from bearing plants and plant them deep. Keep them moist, and they will root in a few days. Do this just before it rains.

SEPTEMBER
Annuals of the hardy class may be sown this month: the following list will assist in making a selection: Calliopsis, candytuft, calendulas, canterbury bells, columbine, corn-flower, daisies, forget-me-nots, gaillardia, godetia, larkspur, Limnanthes Douglasii, mignonette, pansies, Phlox Drummondii, primroses, poppies of all kinds, Saponaria Calabrica, Silene pendula, sweet williams, and sweet peas.

Bulbs. - Study the catalogues and make out your wants, for it is nearing planting time.

Lilies. - If success is required of the St. Joseph's or Virgin lily (L. candidum), it must be planted right away.

Perennials and biennials should be sown early this month. They have two good growing months ahead of them yet to make considerable progress. The seed-bed will require shade during the middle of the day until the young plants come up; frequent weedings will be required, as coco has not yet quit growing, and winter weeds are now putting in an appearance.

Remarks. - All plants used for salad purposes may be sown this month. The ground between the rows of growing crops should be kept in a fine, friable condition. Vegetable seeds of all kinds should always be sown on slight ridges on all but very sandy soils. If the seed is sown on a level bed, as practiced at the North, the ground will become as hard as a turnpike road should a heavy rain occur; and should this shower come along before the plants are up, a crust a quarter of an inch deep will be formed, and the plants will never see daylight. Sown on a ridge they come all right, as the water gradually drains away, leaving the top of the ridge loose and soft.

OCTOBER
All spring flower seeds should be sown in boxes or trays in the conservatory, and all spring bulbs should be planted. The hyacinth, narcissus, tulip and anemone, ranunculus and various lily bulbs, will bloom in good season planted at this time. The bedding plants should be carefully watched, so that any attack of aphis may be treated immediately. Sweet peas may be planted the first of this month, although they are commonly sown in September. A rich spot should be selected for them. This is the time to make the new lawn. The soil should be thoroughly stirred and well pulverized, mixing in a good dressing of commercial fertilizer, or, if one prefers it, a mixture which may be made at home, consisting of cotton-seed meal, acid phosphate, and sulfate of potash, at the rate of 1000 lb., 300 lb., and 100 lb. respectively, per acre. A rich, well-rotted compost, as a top dressing, would also be highly beneficial. Roses pruned late in September or early this month will produce fine winter blooms.

In the garden this is a busy month; some of the winter vegetables are growing, and others should be sown. The bud artichokes should be separated and set fully 3 ft. apart. Onions may still be sown in the early part of the month, and shallots should be divided and set. Some beans may be risked, and English peas sown for winter crop. A few cauliflowers may be tried and cucumbers planted in pots for the hotbeds next month. The following vegetables should be sown: Carrots, corn salad, chervil, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, beets, endive, kohlrabi, kale, lettuce, leeks, mustard, parsley, parsnip, radish, roquette, spinach, Swiss chard, salsify. Some cabbage and a few cauliflowers should be added to the list. Turnips should be sown for succession every two weeks until April or May. The celery should be kept growing and banking up commenced.

This is an excellent time to plant the new strawberry bed. Make the bed rich with well-rotted manure and select good, healthy sets. The Michel's Early and Cloud are probably the most popular varieties for general planting, and should be set in alternating rows.

NOVEMBER
Flower seeds and bulbs may be planted this month of the same varieties as in October. Cuttings of all the herbaceous plants should be made and potted, for use in the house and for the borders next season. The coldframes should also be put in order. Some of the bulbs for winter forcing should be selected and potted. One of the best Louisiana gardeners recommends the following treatment: Select good, strong bulbs and plant them in rich, light soil, in 5-in. pots, covering them about half an inch. Water well and bury the pots 6 or 8 in. deep in the ground, leaving them there about five weeks, when the bulbs will be found to be well rooted. From this time gradually expose to the light, and they will soon put forth blooms.

The same vegetables may be sown as for October, and the late cabbage seed planted. The Flat Dutch and Drumhead strains are prime favorites. New sowings of peas, turnips, mustard, and radishes should be made, and the hotbeds prepared and set out to cucumbers. Too much care cannot be taken that the manure should be in the best condition possible, so that a good supply of heat may be depended upon. The cucumbers planted last month will be ready now for setting in the hotbeds, and a winter crop forced.

Orchard and vineyard planting. - This is the time to prepare land. That on which a late crop of cowpeas has grown is well suited for the purpose, and should be plowed deeply and well worked over. Towards the last of the month it should be cultivated again, in order to be ready for the trees next month.

DECEMBER
Lawns and yards need watching this month, and attention should be paid to the old leaves and fall rubbish, which makes the yard look untidy. A good place for the leaves is the compost heap. Hedges should be put in shape and the surface drains kept open. Shrubs and roses should be pruned for an early supply of flowers. The Camellia Japonicas are now in bloom, and care should be taken that the small branches are not torn off, instead of being cut properly. Many of these most beautiful of southern ornamental trees have been ruined by careless plucking of flowers.

Garden and orchard. - Many of the fall vegetables may be sown this month and others sown for a succession. Peas, spinach, roquette, radishes, lettuce, endive, and some Early York cabbage should also be sown. In the old spent hotbeds, tomatoes, peppers, and egg-plants may be started; there will not be enough heat to hurry them, and good, strong stocky plants will be secured if care is taken. Irish potatoes may be risked, should there be a favorable time for planting during the latter part of the month. Usually they are planted in January. The chances are about equal should they be planted late this month. Nuts of all kinds, both for budding and otherwise, should be planted. Some of the best Louisiana pecans are said to come true from seed, and may be sown where they are intended to grow.